CWV – Computer

Expansi Slot – Motherboard Component

Slots are parts of a computer system that are very common and are always available. One of them is expansion slot, this slot is used to facilitate communication between input / output equipment with the motherboard, such as for VGA Card, Sound Card, Modem, and others. Expansion slots have various specifications, but the difference between one and the other is the shape, speed of data processing, and the facilities it has. And every slot available on the motherboard will affect the price and performance of the system itselfExpansi Slot - Motherboard Component

These are known slot types in computer systems:

1. ISA (Industrial Standard Architecture).
This slot is the most commonly available on the motherboard, because the ISA is the slot of the motherboard. The longest slot is ISA. But if all the slots are the same bet, it’s a sign that the slot on the motherboard is all-bit ISA. ISA has a transfer rate of 0.625MB / sec. While the system that is widely used today uses 16-bit ISA which has a transfer rate of 2MB / sec. This is not a big amount. But the card that has an average speed is no more than this, so this slot is considered still quite compatible. ISAA for soundcard slots.

2. EISA (Enhanced Industry Standard Architecture).
EISA is more in the system server. Because this gap is deliberately intended to handle work that is heavier than ISA. EISA has bus mastering features that can work freely without overloading CPU work. Examples of cards that use this slot are SCSI cards. Since this slot does not work with the CPU, this slot is quite appropriate to be used to increase the speed of work of the computer.

3. MCA (Micro Channel Architecture).
This slot was first introduced by IBM. Like EISA, MCA has 32-bits and is able to do maternal buses too. However, MCAs have limitations. If on EISA you can install an ISA card, the MCA ISA card cannot be installed inside. However, MCA can automatically send a card that is installed and immediately performs basic configuration. MCAs are also stronger and errors that sometimes occur in other slots. Unfortunately, this gap has become history, which is not used anymore.

4. VESA (Video Electronics Standard Association).
As the name implies, this slot is done for graphic purposes that require high speed, such as a video card. The transfer rate owned by VESA itself is 132MB / sec. Basically the same as the ISA slot, but VESA has an additional slot behind which the total length of the VESA is 4 inches larger than the ISA slot.

5. PCMCIA (Personal Computer Memory Card International Association).
What is very striking from this slot is the form of the card that will be inserted into it, which is only a credit card. Usually the slot is only available on devices that have high mobility, such as notebooks. However, now there are also many PCs that provide PCMCIA slots. Using the 68 pin interface, this slot serves as …

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Understanding Motherboard Types How to Choose the Right One and their functions

Knowing different types of motherboards is important if you want to build your own computer. This is also useful for solving computer problems easily. Over the years, many motherboards have been circulating in the market and most of the time there are new models released every year. To get used to various types of motherboards especially in choosing one, check the following motherboard classifications listed:

Understanding Motherboard Types How to Choose the Right One and their functions

Based on Dimensions:

Baby AT Motherboard

This motherboard has a width of 8.5 inches and a length of 10 inches. Usually, this is easily recognized because the DIN keyboard connector is placed in the upper right corner of the motherboard. In general, this is made for the classic Pentium processor because it has a 7 ZIF socket slot. It is also called the Baby AT because the overall size is only two thirds of ordinary AT motherboards.

Complete AT motherboard

This is the first type of motherboard to be made and its size is 12 inches and 11 inches long. This has many problems in peripheral installation and troubleshooting because the overall design is not very good. Accessibility is also bad because the drive bay is installed above the motherboard. Also, expansion cards include processors that lead to poor system ventilation and a high risk of overheating.

ATX motherboard

ATX has a width of 7.5 inches and a length of 12 inches. This is generally made for Intel processors. The bus speed is around 100 MHz and has soft power support which only means that the operating system can turn it off. USB ports and I / O ports are also directly integrated. The best thing about that is the way everything is positioned; The Baby AT section is rotated in 90 degrees so that the cards in the bus architecture will not cover the processor, thus helping in efficient system ventilation.Understanding Motherboard Types How to Choose the Right One and their functions

Based on Processor Type:

Socket A Motherboard

Also known as Socket 464, this motherboard is made for Durons and AMD processors. This is made on the Pin Grid Array with 462 pins and a bus speed of around 100 to 200 MHz.

Socket 370 Motherboard

This was made for Celeron, Pentium III, VIA C3 and VIA Cyrix III processors. This is in the PGA package with 370 pins and the bus speed runs around 66 to 133 MHz.

Socket 378 Motherboard

Also known as Socket N, this motherboard is made for Pentium 4, Pentium 4EE and Intel Pentium M processors. It is built in a PGA package with 478 pins. On average, bus speeds run around 100 to 200 MHz.

Socket T Motherboard

It is also referred to as LGA 775. This type of motherboard is made for Intel Xeon, Intel Core 2 Duo, Intel Core 2 Quad and many more similar processors. It is built on PGA with 775 pins. The bus speed is also high at 1600 MHz.

Socket 939 Motherboard

This type of motherboard is made for AMD processors. Made in a PGA package with 939 pins, the bus speed …

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Chipset Motherboard component

Chipset Motherboard componentMost desktop computers are escorted by several pieces of silicon on top of the motherboard. “Specification Application Specific Integrated Circuit” or ASICs otherwise known as chipsets. The chipset is a small electronic circuit, packed with lots of transistors. The chipset also determines the type of memory that can be used by the motherboard, the speed of delivering data between the “hard drive” and the system and escorts all the devices that are in expansion slots. In general, the main functions escorted by the chipset are compatibility, expandability and memory.

The chipset has several functions, for example:

– ROM chips to store BIOS.
– Chipset which normally consists of two northbridge and southbridge
– Chipset also functions to bridge the data flow and manage and control several major components and additions to the motherboard.

On the motherboard there are 2 types of chipsets that can be said to function as the commander in chief of a motherboard system. But now, there are many motherboards that use different chipsets. The type of chipset that will be used on the motherboard will determine several things, including:
• The type of processor that can be used
• Type of memory that supports PC systems and their maximum capacity
• Complete I / O that can be provided
• A type of display adapter that can be used
• Data width on motherboarad that can be supported
• Availability of additional features (eg LAN, sound card, or onboard modem).

Chipset is divided into 2 types, namely:

– Chipset Northbridge
This chiset is the main “bus controller” circuit such as memory, cache and “PCI Controller”. It may have more than one “discrete chip”. All chipsets are called primary or the largest north bridge chips. For example: “FW82439HX” signifies a PCI 430HX PCI set.

– Southbridge Chipset
This chipset refers to non-essential controllers such as EIDE and serial port controllers. It has only one “descrete chip” and may be substituted for different chipsets, for example Sis 5513 Intel PIIX.…

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Connector, BIOS And CMOS – Motherboard Component

The connector has been stuck on the motherboard.

A device that connects motherboards to chassis. In general, the connector is soldered to the motherboard, so external components such as keyboards, printers, speakers, etc. can be connected directly to the motherboard.
. And all connectors connected to the motherboard always follow the standards set. For example, the power supply connector in the cabinet will match the connector on the motherboard. The connector itself is divided into three types:

Connector, BIOS & CMOS - Motherboard Component

a. Power Connector
The power connector is a pin that connects the motherboard to power
supply on the chassis of a computer. On AT type motherboards, the casing needed is AT type too. AT type power connector consists of two parts, where two cables from the power supply will stick there. On the ATX type, the power supply cable integrates in one header intact, so you just plug it in on the motherboard. This cable consists of two columns according to the pins on the motherboard that comprise
above two pin arrays too. There are several motherboards that provide two
type of power connector, AT and ATX. Most of the latest motherboards are already
ATX type.
Power supply is connected to the motherboard through colorful cables and large plastic connectors.

b. Floppy and IDE connectors
This connector connects a motherboard with a permanent storage device such as a floppy disk or hard disk. The IDE connector in a motherboard usually consists of two, one is the primary IDE and the other is the secondary IDE. The Primary IDE connector connects the motherboard to the primary master drive and the secondary master device. Meanwhile, the secondary IDE connector is usually connected with a device for slaves such as CDROM and slave hard drive. how to connect pin with cable? So easy. The IDE cable ribbon has a red stripe on one side. The red strip marks, the side of the red berstrip cable is pinned to the number 1 pin on the connector. When stuck in reverse, installed devices will not be recognized by the computer. The same applies to connecting a floppy cable with a pin on the motherboard.

c. Keyboard Connector
There are two types of connectors that connect the motherboard to the keyboard. One is a serial connector, while the other is a PS / 2 connector. The serial connector or type AT is round, larger than the PS / 2 model, with 5 pin holes. Meanwhile, the PS / 2 connector has a 6 pin pin hole and is half the diameter compared to the AT model.

BIOS and CMOS

BIOS (basic input output system) is a collection of programs found in EPROM (Eraseble Programmable Read-Only Memory) or EEPROM (Electrically Eraseable PROM) which are also recognized as Flash ROM chips. The BIOS functions to initialize and configure peripherals primarily in the input and output processes. BIOS position is between hardware and computer operating systems (Windows, DOS, Linux, OS / 2, etc.). Besides that bios also functions to control the interaction …

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